Grammatical classes of the word

Term “prts of speech†denotes the lexicogrmmticl clsses of words correlting with ech other in the generl system of lnguge on the bsis of their grmmticlly relevnt properties. There re three types of grmmticlly relevnt properties of words tht differentite clsses of words clled “prts of speechâ€: semntic forml nd functionl properties. The semntic criterion refers to the generlized semntic properties common to the whole clss of words e.

2014-08-04

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Grammatical classes of the word

The theoretical study of language in the history of science began with the attempts to identify and describe grammatical classes of words called "parts of speech".

Term “parts of speech” denotes the lexico-grammatical classes of words correlating with each other in the general system of language on the basis of their grammatically relevant properties.

There are three types of grammatically relevant properties of words that differentiate classes of words called “parts of speech”: semantic, formal and functional properties. They traditionally make the criteria for the classification of parts of speech.

The semantic criterion refers to the generalized semantic properties common to the whole class of words, e.g.: the generalized (or, categorial) meaning of nouns is “thingness”, of verbs process, of adjectives substantive property, of adverbs non-substantive property.

The formal criterion embraces the formal features (word-building and word-changing) that are characteristic for a particular part of speech, e.g.: the noun is characterized by a specific set of word-building affixes, cf.: property, bitterness, worker, etc., and is changed according to the categories of number, case and article determination: boy-boys, boy – boy’s, boy – the boy – a boy, etc. Combinability is also a relevant formal feature for each particular part of speech; for example, verbs can be modified by adverbs, while nouns cannot (except in specific contexts).

The functional criterion is based on the functions that the words of a particular class fulfill in the sentence, e.g.: the most characteristic functions of the noun are those of a subject and an object; the only function of the finite form of the verb is that of a predicate; the adjective functions in most contexts as an attribute; the adverb as an adverbial modifier.

Traditionally, all parts of speech are subdivided on the upper level of classification into notional words and functional words.

Notional words, which traditionally include nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, pronouns and numerals, have complete nominative meanings, are in most cases changeable and fulfill self-dependent syntactic functions in the sentence. 

Functional words, which include conjunctions, prepositions, articles, interjections, particles, and modal words, have incomplete nominative value, are unchangeable and fulfill mediatory, constructional syntactic functions.



 

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